International Leprosy Association -
History of Leprosy

International Leprosy Association -
History of Leprosy

Database

Dr Wayne M Meyers

Status Physician
Country USA

Notes

Dr Wayne M Meyers(1924-) grew up on a small farm in western Pennsylvania, and was a member of a rural Methodist church. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry (Juniata College), a Masters and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Medical Microbiology ( University of Wisconsin), as well as a Doctor of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine). He also graduated from the Moody Bible Institute and took special studies at Northwestern University, the University of Virginia, Yale University, and Alliance Française in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

In 1961, Dr. Meyers joined the American Leprosy Missions and went to Africa, serving first in a one-doctor hospital in Burundi, and then in Congo until 1973. In Africa he worked with leprosy patients, developed ambulatory treatment and control programs, and did research on leprosy, Buruli ulcer, filariasis and other infectious diseases of the tropics.

From 1973 to 1975, Dr. Meyers was a Professor of Pathology at the University of Hawaii where he did further research on leprosy, and consulted at the leprosy hospitals on Molokai and Oahu.

From 1975 to 2005, Dr. Meyers has served on the staff, as a civilian, of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, or AFIP (located at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center), in Washington DC, first as Chief of Microbiology, and from 1989 to 2005 as Chief of Mycobacteriology, in the Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Pathology. He was also the Registrar for the Leprosy Registry, 1975- 2005 , with the American Registry of Pathology at the AFIP, and since then as Assistant to the Registrar. After official retirement, Dr. Meyers has continued at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology as a Visiting Scientist, a volunteer position under the auspices of the American Red Cross.

Dr Meyers is a former Chairman of the Board of Directors of American Leprosy Missions (ALM), and Program Consultant to the ALM. He is currently a member of the ALM Board of Reference. He also served as Consultant to the Leonard Wood Memorial (American Leprosy Foundation). He is a member of the Corporate Board of the Damien-Dutton Society for Leprosy Aid. Dr. Meyers is a Past President of the International Leprosy Association, and also a Past President of the Binford-Dammin Society of Infectious Disease Pathologists.

Dr Meyers’ scientific papers, now numbering 389 published, with 26 more in preparation, include studies in immunochemistry, the pathology of infectious diseases of the tropics, experimental leprosy, and indigenous leprosy in wild animals. Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection), a devastating and disabling disease primarily of children in West Africa, is a current topic of particular concern.

In addition to providing histopathology reports on hundreds of biopsy specimens from patients with infectious diseases (particularly leprosy and Buruli ulcer), sent in to the AFIP, Dr. Meyers has trained numerous physicians who came for special studies in the mycobacterial diseases. He has lectured widely in the United States and overseas, including Europe, Africa, South America, Asia and Australia. He also serves as a reviewer of manuscripts submitted for publication in scientific journals in his field.

Dr Meyers and his wife Esther live in Laurel, Maryland, and have four grown children.

Research Institute(s) associated with:
Leonard Wood Memorial, Cebu, Philippines

Publications

W. M. MEYERS. A brief medical experience in central Africa. Conemaugh Valley Memorial Hospital Quarterly Bull. 4:23-30, 1964.

W. M. MEYERS. Plasma heparin-precipitable fraction in leprosy patients. Int. J. Lepr. 36:192-202, 1968.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy--Some immuno-pathologic considerations. Internat. Pathol. 9:57-60, 1968.

W. M. MEYERS. Impairment of plasma fibrinolytic activity in leprosy patients. Int. J. Lepr. 37:343-350, 1969.

W. M. MEYERS. Book Review of textbook, Précis de Léprologie, Clinique et Thérapeutique de la Lèpre en Afrique Noire , by J. Languillon and A. Carayon. (Published by Masson & C ie, Paris, 1969. 392 pages.) Reviewed in Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:576-578, 1970.

W. M. MEYERS, D. H. Connor and R. Shannon. Histologic characteristics of granuloma multiforme (Mkar disease), Including a comparison with leprosy and Granuloma annulare. Report of first case from Congo ( Kinshasa). Int. J. Lepr. 38:241-249, 1970.

G. L. Stucky and W. M. MEYERS. Skin biopotentials in leprosy. (Letter to the Editor.) The Lancet, June 10, 1972.

J. H. Peters, G. R. Gordon, A. B. A. Karat and W. M. MEYERS. Metabolic disposition of dapsone in Indian and African subjects. Int. J. Lepr. 40:221-222, 1972.

D. T. Purtilo, W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Fatal strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed patients. Am. J. Med. 56:488-493, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS, W. M. Shelly, D. H. Connor and E. K. Meyers. Human Mycobacterium ulcerans infections developing at sites of trauma to skin. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 23:919-923, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS, W. M. Shelly and D. H. Connor. Heat treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections without surgical excision. Am. J. Trop Med. Hyg. 23:924-929, 1974.

J. K. Read, C. M. Heggie, W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Cytotoxic activity of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Infect. Immun. 9:1114-1122, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS, D. H. Connor, B. McCullough, J. Bourland, R. Moris and L. Proos. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections in Zaire, Including the report of new foci. Ann. Soc. Belge Med. Trop. 54:147-157, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS. Monotony mitigated a mite: or, A superior skin smear slide. (Letter to the Editor.) Int. J. Lepr. 42:74, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS. Lepromin nomenclature. (Letter to the Editor.) Int. J. Lepr. 42:460, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS. Popular beliefs in Zaire on the transmission of leprosy. (Letter to the Editor.) Lepr. Rev. 45:189-190, 1974.

W. M. MEYERS. Residence of first patient with Mycobacterium ulceransinfection reported from Zaire. (Correspondence.) Ann. Soc. Belge Med. Trop. 55:125, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Mycobacterium ulcerans infections in leprosy patients. Lepr. Rev. 46:21-27, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS, S. Kvernes and C. H. Binford. Comparison of reactions to human and armadillo lepromins in leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 43:218-225, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS, S. Kvernes and E. M. Staple. Failure of levamisole to alter the lepromin reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:857-859, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS, J. R. Dooley and K. J. Kwon-Chung. Mycotic granuloma caused by Phialophora repens. (In a lepromatous leprosy patient.) Am. J. Clin. Path. 64:549-555, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Onchocerciasis and streptocerciasis in patients with leprosy. Altered Mazzotti reactions. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 524-525, 1975.

W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Identification of Mycobacterium leprae. (Letter to the Editor.) Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 100:506-508, 1976.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy and armadillos. (Letter to the Editor.) Southern Med. J. 69:1103, 1976.

C. H. Binford and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. An Atlas. Co-editors, C. H. Binford and D. H. Connor. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1976. Two volumes. Vol. I, pp. 205-225.

D. H. Connor, W. M. MEYERS and R. E. Krieg. Infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans . Ibid. Vol. I, pp. 226-235.

W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford and G. P. Walsh. Indigenous leprosy in the nine-banded armadillo. Ibid. Vol. II, pp. 694-698.

G. P. Walsh, E. E. Storrs, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Naturally acquired leprosy-like disease in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus ): Recent epizootiologic findings. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 22:363-367, 1977.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, H. L. Brown, R. J. W. Rees and J. Convit. Naturally acquired leprosy-like disease in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus): Reactions in leprosy patients to lepromins prepared from naturally infected armadillos. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 22:369-375, 1977.

C. H. Binford, W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, E. E. Storrs and H. L. Brown. Naturally acquired leprosy-like disease in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus): Histopathologic and microbiologic studies of tissues. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 22:377-388, 1977.

W. M. MEYERS. Preface. In, Leprosy: Cultivation of the Etiologic Agent: Immunology, Animal Models . (Monograph.) PAHO Scientific Publication No. 342, 1977. pp. v-vii. (Proceedings of the Workshop on “Future Problems in the Microbiology of Mycobacterium leprae.” Sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization, held at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, October 1976.)

W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford and G. P. Walsh. Indigenous leprosy in the nine-banded armadillo. In, A Window on Leprosy. B. R. Chatterjee, ed. Gandhi Memorial Leprosy Foundation Silver Jubilee Commemorative Volume, Calcutta, India, 1978. pp. 103-104. (Reprinted with permission from, Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. An Atlas. C.H.Binford and D. H. Connor, co-editors. Washington DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1976.)

C. H. Binford and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. Ibid. pp. 153-174.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, E. E. Storrs and H. L. Brown. Indigenous leprosy in nine-banded armadillos. In, The Armadillo as an Experimental Model in Biomedical Research. Washington DC: PAHO Scientific Publication No. 366, 1978. pp. 67-76.

G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). In, Mycobacterial Infections of Zoo Animals . R. J. Montali, ed. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978. pp. 253-257. (Proceedings of a Symposium held at the Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia of the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, October 1976.)

J. H. Peters, G. R. Gordon, J. F. Murray, Jr. and W. M. MEYERS. Metabolic disposition of dapsone in African leprosy patients. Lepr. Rev. 50:7-19, 1979.

R. E. Krieg, J. H. Wolcott and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: Treatment with Rifampin, hyperbaric oxygenation, and heat. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 50:888-892, 1979.

W. M. MEYERS, D. H. Connor, L. Bevans and R. Terry. Case for diagnosis (Lepromatous leprosy in traumatically ruptured spleen). Mil. Medicine 145:472, 481, 1980.

W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, H. L. Brown and G. P. Walsh. Leprosy in wild armadillos. In, Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980. pp. 247-251. (Proceedings of a Symposium on Comparative Pathology of Zoo Animals, National Zoological Park, Washington DC, October 1978.

J. R. Leininger, K. J. Donham and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in a chimpanzee: Postmortem lesions. Int. J. Lepr. 48:414-421, 1980.

W. M. MEYERS. Indigenous leprosy in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus ). In, Leprosy. F. Latapi, A. Saul, O. Rodriguez, M. Malacara and S. G. Browne, eds. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1980. pp. 32-36. (Excerpta Medica’s International Congress Series, #466, 403 pages. Proceedings of the 11th International Leprosy Congress, Mexico City, Mexico, 1978.)

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Feigin and Cherry, eds. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1981. pp. 880-895.

W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections of the skin. In, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Volume II of International Textbook of Medicine ). Braude, ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1981. pp. 1596-1610.

W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Skin infections in the tropics. Medicine North America 9:959-966, 1981.

G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, P. J. Gerone, R. H. Wolf and J. R. Leininger. Leprosy--A zoonosis. Lepr. Rev. 52 (Suppl.):77-83, 1981. (Proceedings of Symposium on the Epidemiology of Leprosy, Geilo, Norway, September 1981.)

C. H. Binford, W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Leprosy--State of the art. J.A.M.A. 247:2283-2292, April 23/30, 1982.

W. M. MEYERS. Early recognition of leprosy. In, New Developments in Tropical Medicine II . Thomas W. Simpson, G. Thomas Strickland and Mary Ann Mercer, eds. Washington DC: National Council for International Health, 1983. p. 77.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, G. B. Baskin and P. J. Gerone. Models of multibacillary leprosy in unaltered hosts: Current status. In, Bolivar’s Bicentennial Seminar on Leprosy Control. (Monograph.) Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization, 1983. pp. 11-12.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Hunter’s Tropical Medicine, 6th edition. G. Thomas Strickland, ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1984. pp. 409-422.

W. M. MEYERS and D. H. Connor. Infections of the skin caused by atypical mycobacteria. Ibid. pp. 422-427.

W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections of the skin. In, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Volume II of International Textbook of Medicine ), 2nd edition. Braude, ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1984. pp. 2669-2687.

L. N. Martin, B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford and M. Harboe. Experimental leprosy in nonhuman primates. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med.28:201-236, 1984.

W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, G. P. Walsh, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin and P. J. Gerone. Animal models of leprosy. In, Microbiology--1984. L. Leive and D. Schlessinger, D., eds. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1984. pp. 307-311.

Y. Fukunishi, W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, F. B. Johnson, C. H. Binford, S. Okada and M. Nishiura. Ultrastructural features of macrophages of armadillos infected with actively multiplying Mycobacterium leprae. Int. J. Lepr. 52:198-202, 1984.

Y. Fukunishi, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, G. P. Walsh, F. B. Johnson, P. J. Gerone, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus and L. N. Martin. Electron microscopic study of leprosy in a mangabey monkey (Natural infection). Int. J. Lepr. 52:203-207, 1984.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, P. J. Gerone and G. B. Baskin. Comparative pathology of disseminated multibacillary leprosy. Comp. Pathol. Bull. XVI, No. 2:1, 5, 6. May 1984.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, et al. Immunology, Epidemiology and Social Aspects of Leprosy. (Monograph.) Pontifical Academy of Sciences Document No.10. Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 1984. 42 pages. (Proceedings of Working Group on Immunology, Epidemiology and Social Aspects of Leprosy, 28 May-1 June 1984, The Vatican.)

L. N. Martin, B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, P. J. Gerone, W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, T. L. Hadfield and C. J. Schlagel. Depression of lympho- cyte responses to mitogens in mangabeys with disseminated experimental leprosy. Cellular Immunity 90:115-130, 1985.

R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, G. B. Baskin, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Experimental leprosy in three species of monkeys. Science 227:529-531, 1985.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, H. L. Brown, C. H. Binford, G. D. Imes, Jr., T. L. Hadfield, C. J. Schlagel, Y. Fukunishi, P. J. Gerone, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, M. Harboe and T. Imaeda. Leprosy in a mangabey monkey-- Naturally acquired infection. Int. J. Lepr. 53:1-14, 1985.

D. J. Wear, T. L. Hadfield, D. H. Connor, R. C. Neafie, I. S. Banks, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction stains Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium chelonei (abscessus), and Mycobacterium kansasii. (Letter to the Editor.) Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 109:701-702, 1985.

C. J. Schlagel, T. L. Hadfield and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in the Armed Forces of the United States: Newly reported cases from 1970 to 1983. Mil. Medicine 150:427-430, 1985.

G. B. Baskin, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, W. M. MEYERS and R. Malaty. Experimental leprosy in the mangabey (Cercocebus atys): Necropsy findings. Int. J. Lepr. 53:269-277, 1985.

Y. Fukunishi, G. P. Kearney, J. Whiting, Jr., G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and F. B. Johnson. Isolation of characteristic glycolipids possibly included in spherical droplets around M. leprae. Int. J. Lepr. 53:447-454, 1985.

M. L. Brubaker, W. M. MEYERS and J. Bourland. Leprosy in children one year of age and under. Int. J. Lepr. 53:517-523, 1985.

G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Animal models in the evaluation of chemotherapy of leprosy. In, Experimental Models in Antimicrobial Chemotherapy . O. Zak and M. A. Sande, editors. London: Academic Press, Inc. ( London) Ltd. Three volumes, 1986. Vol. 3, pp. 95-116.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh and C. H. Binford. Leprosy priority low in developed world. U.S. Medicine 22 (15, 16):11-16, 1986.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin and G. B. Baskin. Animal models for multibacillary leprosy. In, Proceedings of The Inauguration of China Leprosy Association, China Leprosy Foundation, China Leprosy Control and Research Centre and The First International Leprosy Symposium in China. Held in Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China, 26-28 November 1985. Published by The China Leprosy Association, Beijing, September 1986. pp. 56-65. (In English.)

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, R. H. Wolf, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin and G. B. Baskin. Animal models for multibacillary leprosy. China Lepr. J. 1:1-6, 1986. (In Chinese.)

W. M. MEYERS. Book Review of book entitled Leprosy (Medicine in the Tropics Series), Robert C. Hastings, editor. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1985. Review by Meyers published in The Star 46:15, September/October 1986.

G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Naturally-acquired leprosy in the nine-banded armadillo: A decade of experience 1975-1985. J. Leukocyte Biol. 40:645-656, 1986.

G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, R. H. Wolf, E. A. Watson, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. The lepromin test in rhesus monkeys. Int. J. Lepr. 54:427-436, 1986.

R. L. Modlin, L. D. Omerod, G. P. Walsh, T. H. Rea, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, L. N. Martin, R. H. Wolf and B. J. Gormus. In situ characterization of T-lymphocyte sub-populations in leprosy in the mangabey monkey. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 65:260-264, 1986.

P. E. M. Fine, C. K. Job, A. C. McDougall, W. M. MEYERS and J. M. Ponnighaus. Comparability among histopathologists in the diagnosis and classification of lesions suspected of leprosy in Malawi. Int. J. Lepr. 54:614-625, 1986.

W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections of the skin. In, Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology . Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1986. Chapter 227, pp. 1350-1361.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 2nd edition. Feigin & Cherry, editors. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1987. Two volumes. Vol. I, pp. 1172-1190.

G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, R. H. Wolf, M. Murphey-Corb, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, W. M. MEYERS and R. Malaty. Experimental leprosy in a rhesus monkey: Necropsy findings. Int. J. Lepr. 55:109-115, 1987.

G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, R. H. Wolf, J. L. Blanchard, R. Malaty, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Experimental leprosy in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): A model for polyneuritic leprosy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:385-391, 1987.

A. Mukherjee and W. M. MEYERS. Endothelial cell bacillation in lepromatous leprosy: A case report. Lepr. Rev. 58:419-424, 1987.

B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. B. Baskin, L. N. Martin, P. J. Gerone, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. First monkey with naturally acquired HD dies. The Star 47:16, September/October 1987.

K. Banerjee, W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in a child of less than two months of age. In, Clinical Dermatology, The CMD Case Collection, (17th World Congress of Dermatology), D. S. Wilkinson, J. M. Mascaró, C. E. Orfanos, editors. Stuttgart- New York: Schattauer, 1987. p. 149.

B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. B. Baskin, S. Ohkawa, P. J. Gerone, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford and W. E. Greer. A second sooty mangabey monkey with naturally acquired leprosy: First reported possible monkey-to- monkey transmission. Int. J. Lepr. 56:61-65, 1988.

M. Pimsler, T. A. Sponsler and W. M. MEYERS. Immunosuppressive properties of the soluble toxin from Mycobacterium ulcerans. J. Infect. Dis. 157:577-580, 1988.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. B. Baskin and L. N. Martin. Leprosy in nonhuman primates. In, Dermatology in Five Continents. Proceedings of the XVII World Congress of Dermatology, Berlin, May 24-29, 1987. C. E. Orfanos, R. Stadler and H. Gollnick, editors. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988. pp. 535-538.

. W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, B. J. Gormus, R. H. Wolf, G. B. Baskin and L. N. Martin. Natural and experimental leprosy in monkeys. (Proceedings of IV European Leprosy Symposium on Leprosy Research, Santa Margherita Ligure ( Genoa), Italy, 1-5 October 1986.) Quaderni di cooperazione sanitaria (Health Cooperation Papers) 7:43-45, 1988.

R. Wabitsch, W. M. MEYERS, et al. Multidrug therapy for lepromatous leprosy. Preliminary results. (Proceedings of IV European Leprosy Symposium on Leprosy Research, Santa Margherita Ligure ( Genoa), Italy, 1-5 October 1986.) Quaderni di cooperazione sanitaria (Health Cooperation Papers) 7:299-302, 1988.

W. M. MEYERS, A. C. McDougall, R. H. Fleury, R. Neves, O. Reyes and C.H.Binford. Histologic responses in sixty multibacillary leprosy patients inoculated with autoclaved Mycobacterium leprae and live BCG. Int. J. Lepr. 56:302-309, 1988.

R. Malaty, W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, C. H. Binford, L. E. Zimmerman, G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin and R. H. Wolf. Histopathological changes in the eyes of mangabey monkeys with lepromatous leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 56:443-448, 1988.

. G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin, R. H. Wolf and P. J. Gerone. Leprosy as a zoonosis: An update. Acta Leprologica VI:51-60, 1988.

B. J. Gormus, D. K. Ohashi, S. Ohkawa, G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, P. J. Brennan and C. Trygg. Serologic responses to Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid-I antigen in sooty mangabey monkeys with experimental leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 56:537-545, 1988.

K. R. Wabitsch and W. M. MEYERS. Histopathologic observations on the persistence of Mycobacterium leprae in the skin of multibacillary leprosy patients under chemotherapy. Lepr. Rev. 59:341-346, 1988.

A. Mukherjee, S. R. Misra and W. M. MEYERS. An electron microscopic study of lymphatics in the dermal lesions of human leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 57:506-510, 1989.

B. J. Gormus, M. Murphey-Corb, L. N. Martin, J.-Y. Zhang, G. B. Baskin, C. B. Trygg, G. P. Walsh and W. M. MEYERS. Interactions between simian immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium leprae in experimentally inoculated rhesus monkeys. J. Infec. Dis. 160:405-413, 1989.

P. A. S. Johnstone, W. M. MEYERS, C. H. Binford, G. P. Walsh, B. J. Gormus and G. B. Baskin. Recent advances in the development of nonhuman primates as animal models for leprosy. Scand. J. Lab. Anim. Sci. 16:102-105, 1989. (Suppl.1.)

. W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Leprosy. (Monograph.) VBC Tropical Disease Paper 10, Vector Biology and Control Project, Agency for International Development, Office of Health, Bureau of Science and Technology, Department of State, Washington DC. 1990. 32 pages.

W. M. MEYERS and C. H. Binford. Leprosy. In, Anderson’s Pathology, 9th edition. John M. Kissane, editor. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company. 1990. Two volumes. Vol. I:333-337.

B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, W. R. Levis and H. C. Meeker. Antibodies to lipoarabinomannan antigen in sooty mangabey monkeys experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium leprae. Int. J. Lepr. 58:65-72, 1990.

G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, M. Murphey-Corb, G. P. Walsh and W. M. MEYERS. Pathology of dual Mycobacterium leprae and simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys. Int. J. Lepr. 58:358-364, 1990.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy research: Progress still slow. U. S. Medicine 26:29-30, August 1990.

W. M. MEYERS. Obituary: Chapman H. Binford, M.D., 1900-1990. Int. J. Lepr. 58:575-578, 1990.

W. M. MEYERS. Obituary: Chapman H. Binford, M.D., 1900-1990. Modern Pathol. 3:557-560, September 1990.

J. P. Fields and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections. In, Dermatopathology. E. R. Farmer and T. F. Hood, editors. Philadelphia: Appleton- Century-Crofts. 1990. pp. 338-356.

W. M. MEYERS. Istopatologia. In, Manuale di Leprologia. E. Nunzi and D. L. Leiker, editors. Bologna, Italy: Associazione Italiana Amici di Raoul Follereau. 1990. pp. 87-102. (In Italian.)

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Hunter’s Tropical Medicine , 7th edition. G. Thomas Strickland, editor. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1991. pp. 483-494

W. M. MEYERS. Atypical mycobacterial skin infections. Ibid. pp. 495-500.

W. M. MEYERS, B. J. Gormus, G. P. Walsh, G. B. Baskin and G. B. Hubbard. Naturally acquired and experimental leprosy in nonhuman primates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44 Suppl.:24-27, 1991.

W. M. MEYERS and A. M. Marty. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of leprosy: Clinical, pathological, immunological and chemotherapeutic aspects. Drugs 41:832-856, 1991.

W. M. MEYERS, G. P. Walsh, B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin and G. B. Hubbard. Experimental animal models for leprosy. Quaderni di cooperazioni sanitaria (Health Cooperation Papers) 12:133-137, 1991.

D. H. Connor and W. M. MEYERS. Buruli ulcer (Infection by Mycobact- erium ulcerans ). In, Current Diagnosis 8, Rex B. Conn, editor. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1991. pp. 206-208.

B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, P. L. Alford, D. R. Lee, G. B. Hubbard, J. W. Eichberg and W. M. MEYERS. A serologic study of naturally acquired leprosy in chimpanzees. Int. J. Lepr. 59: 450-457, 1991.

P. A. S. Johnstone, A. D. George and W. M. MEYERS. Ocular lesions in leprosy. Ann. Ophthalmol. 23:297-303, 1991.

G. B. Hubbard, D. R. Lee, J. W. Eichberg, B. J. Gormus, K. Xu and W. M. MEYERS. Spontaneous leprosy in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Vet. Pathol. 28:546-548,1991.

G. B. Baskin, B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, L. N. Martin, R. H. Wolf, C. Cantrell, G. H. Pezeshkpour, G. P. Walsh, R. Malaty and W. M. MEYERS. Experimental borderline lepromatous leprosy with intraneural erythema nodosum lepro- sum in a mangabey monkey (Cercocebus atys). Int. J. Lepr. 59:618-623, 1991.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. Guerrant, Walker & Weller, editors. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 1991. Two volumes. Volume 1, Chapter 41, pp. 474-485.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Dermatology Clinics of North America. G. Lupton, editor. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1992. pp. 73-96.

W. M. MEYERS. Nonhuman sources of leprosy. In, Seminar on Leprosy Control, November 1991. Seoul: Korean Leprosy Control Association. 1992. pp. 147-149.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in paleopathology. Paleopathology Newsletter 49:6-8, April 1992.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 3rd edition. (two volumes). Feigin & Cherry, editors. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1992. Volume I, pp. 1149-1166.

W. M. MEYERS, B. J. Gormus and G. P. Walsh. Nonhuman sources of leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 60:477-481, 1992.

J. Jayakumar, M. Aschhoff, G. Renuka and W. M. MEYERS. Involve- ment of scalp, axillae and groins in lepromatous leprosy (Case report). Indian J. Lepr. 64:541-544, 1992.

B.J. Gormus, L. N. Martin, G. B. Baskin, R. H. Wolf, G. P. Walsh, W. M. Meyers, Binford CH Experimental leprosy in nonhuman primates—Current status. Pp. 554-568 In, Leprosy: Etiobiology of Manifestations, Treatment and Control, B. R. Chatterjee, editor. Jhalda, India: Leprosy Field Research Unit, 1993.

W. M. MEYERS, B. J. Gormus and G. P. Walsh. Animal models of human disease: Leprosy (Hansen’s disease). Compar. Pathol. Bull. 25:2,5,6, August 1993.

S.-N. Cho, B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, R. P. Bohm, Jr., G. P. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS and J.-D. Kim. Serologic responses to nerve antigens in sooty mangabey monkeys with experimental leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 61:236-244, 1993.

P. E. M. Fine, C. K. Job, S. B. Lucas, W. M. MEYERS, J. M. Ponnighaus and J. A. C. Sterne. Extent, origin and implications of observer variation in the histopathological diagnosis of suspected leprosy. Int. J. Lepr. 61:270-282, 1993.

R. A. Cockman-Thomas, C. A. Colleton, C. H. Gardiner and W. M. MEYERS. Gnathostomiasis in a wild-caught nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novem- cinctus ). Lab. Animal Sci. 43:630-632, 1993.

W. M. MEYERS, B. J. Gormus and G. P. Walsh. Experimental leprosy. In, Leprosy, 2nd ed. R. C. Hastings, editor. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone, pp. 385-408.

M. Dietrich, W. Gaus, P. Kern and W. M. MEYERS. An international randomized study with long-term follow-up of single versus combination chemotherapy of multibacillary leprosy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:2249-2257, 1994.

P. J. Converse, V. L. Haines, A. Wondimu, L. E. Craig, W. M. MEYERS. Infection of SCID mice with Mycobacteriumleprae and control with antigen-activated immune human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect. Immun. 63:1047-1054, 1995.

A. Guédénon, C. Zinsou, R. Josse, K. Andélé, S. Pritze, F. Portaels, W. M. MEYERS. Traditional treatment of Buruli ulcer in Benin. Arch. Dermatol. 131:741-742, 1995.

B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, G. B. Baskin, L. N. Martin, R.P. Bohm, Jr., J. L. Blanchard, P. A. Mack, M. S. Ratterree, H. M. McClure, W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Experimental leprosy in monkeys. I. Sooty mangabey monkeys: Trans- mission, susceptibility, clinical and pathologic findings. Lepr. Rev. 66:96-104, 1995.

B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, S.-N. Cho, G. B. Baskin, R. P. Bohm, Jr., L. N. Martin, J. L. Blanchard, P. A. Mack, M. S. Ratterree, W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Experimental leprosy in monkeys. II. Longitudinal serological observations in sooty mangabey monkeys. Lepr. Rev. 66:105-125, 1995.

C. A. Moran, A. M. Nelson, S. M. Tuur, L. Mputu, L. Fonseca and W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy in five human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Modern Pathol. 8:662-664, 1995.

L. Bosquée, E. C. Böttger, H. DeBeenhouwer, P. A. Fonteyne, B. Hirschel, L. Larsson, W. M. MEYERS, J. C. Palomino, L. Realini, L. Rigouts, M. T. Silva, A. Teske, P. Van der Auwera and F. Portaels. Cervical lymphadenitis caused by a fastidious mycobacterium closely related to Mycobacterium genavense in an apparently immunocompetent woman: Diagnosis by culture-free microbiological methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:2670-2674, 1995.

W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections of the skin (Including leprosy, tuberculosis of the skin, Buruli ulcer, and less common mycobacterial infections). In, Tropical Pathology. 2nd edition. W. Doerr and G. Seifert, editors. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1995. Volume 8, Chapter 9, pp. 291-377.

R. Josse, A. Guédénon, H. Darie, S. Anagonou, F. Portaels and W. M. MEYERS. Les infections cutanées à Mycobacterium ulcerans: Ulcères de Buruli. Revue Générale. Médecine Tropicale 55: 363-373, 1995. (In French.)

G. L. Woods and W.M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial diseases. Chapter 34 in, Anderson’s Pathology, 10th ed. I. Damjanov and J. Linder, editors. Mosby, St. Louis MO. 1996. pp. 843-865.

F. Portaels, P. A. Fonteyne, H. De Beenhouwer, P. de Rijk, A. Guédénon, J. Hayman and W. M. MEYERS. Variability in the 3’ end of the 16S rRNA sequence of Mycobacteriumulcerans is related to geographic origin of isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:962-965, 1996.

W. M. MEYERS, N. Tignokpa, G. B. Priuli, F. Portaels. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer): First reported patients in Togo. Br. J. Dermatol. 134:1116-1121, 1996.

H.-M. Zhou, A.-R. Shi, A. Mukherjee, G. P. Walsh, S. S. Frankel and W. M. MEYERS. Ultrastructure of normal armadillo epidermis. Int. J Lepr. 64:159-165, 1996.

F. Portaels, L. Realini, L. Bauwens, B. Hirschel, W. M. MEYERS and W. De Meurichy. Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium genavense in birds kept in a zoo: Eleven year survey. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:319-323, 1996.

W. M. MEYERS. Book Review of book entitled, La Lèpre, by H. Sansarricq, Coordinator. Review by Meyers published in Int. J. Lepr. 64:341, 1996.

F. Portaels, J. Aguiar, K. Fissette, P. A. Fonteyne, H. De Beenhouwer, P. de Rijk, A. Guédénon, R. Lemans, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, J. M. Dumonceau and W. M. MEYERS. Direct detection and identification of Mycobacterium ulcerans in clinical specimens by PCR and oligonucleotide-specific capture plate hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1097-1100, 1997.

J. Aguiar, M. C. Domingo, A. Guédénon, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer, an important emerging mycobacterial disease in West Africa. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 1 suppl) No. 505-PA02, p. S43, 1997. (Conference on Global Lung Health, and annual meeting of International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France.

C. R. Horsburgh, Jr. and W. M. MEYERS. Buruli ulcer. In, Pathology of Emerging Infections. C. R. Horsburgh, Jr. and A. M. Nelson, editors. Washington DC: American Society for Microbiology. 1997. Chapter 7, pp. 119-134.

J. Aguiar, M.-C. Domingo, A. Guédénon, W. MEYERS, C. Steunou and F. Portaels. L’ulcère de Buruli, une maladie mycobactérienne importante et en recrudescence au Bénin. Bull. Séanc. Acad. r. Sci. Outre-Mer 43:325-358, 1997.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 4th edition. (two volumes). Ralph D. Feigin & James D. Cherry, editors. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1998. Vol. I, pp. 1248-1266.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy research and patient care over the past century. (Editorial). Int. J. Lepr. 66: 43-48, 1998.

W. Bär, S. Rüsch-Gerdes, E. Richter, G. Marquéz de Bär, C. Dittmer, H. Papsdorf, P. Stosiek, P. B. de Rijk, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Myco- bacterium ulcerans infection in a child from Angola: diagnosis by direct detection and culture. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth 3:189-196, 1998.

B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin, K. Xu, R. P. Bohm, P. A. Mack, M. S. Ratterree, S.-N. Cho, W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Protective immunization of monkeys with BCG or BCG plus heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae: clinical results. Lepr. Rev. 69:6-23, 1998.

F. Portaels, H. Traore, K. De Ridder, W. M. MEYERS. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium ulcerans to clarithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2070-2073, 1998.

J. C. Palomino, A. M. Obiang, L. Realini, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Effect of oxygen on Mycobacterium ulcerans growth in the BACTEC system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:3420-3422, 1998.

B. J. Gormus, K. Xu, G. B. Baskin,L. N. Martin, R. P. Bohm, Jr., J. L. Blanchard, P. A. Mack, M. S. Ratterree, W. M. MEYERS and G. P. Walsh. Experimental leprosy in rhesus monkeys: transmission, susceptibility, clinical and immunological findings. Lepr. Rev. 69:235-245, 1998.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy: Patient care and research--Past, present and prospects. In, Damien and Dutton, Two Josephs on Molokai. Crouch, H. E. Bellmore NY: The Damien-Dutton Society for Leprosy Aid, Inc. 1998. pp. 314-324.

P. Elsen, W. M. MEYERS, A. Guédénon, A. Guimaraes-Peres, P.-A. Fonteyne and F. Portaels. Ulcère de Buruli: du nouveau? Bull. ALLF [Association des Léprologues de Langue Française] No. 4: 22, décembre 1998.

F. M. Lemons-Estes, R. C. Neafie and W. M. MEYERS. Unusual cutaneous infectious and parasitic diseases [Cutaneous amebiasis, cutaneous leishman- iasis, streptocerciasis, cutaneous schistosomiasis, sparganosis, Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, micrococcus infections, primary cutaneous nocardiosis, cutaneous sporotrichosis, subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, subcutaneous zygomycosis, and tungiasis.] In, Dermatologic Cinics, Advances in Military Dermatology. Smith, K. J. and McCollough, M. L., guest editors. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, January 1999. Volume 17 (No. 1), pp. 151-185.

F. Portaels, P. Elsen, A. Guimaraes-Peres, P.-A. Fonteyne and W. M. MEYERS. Insects in the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. (Research Letter.) The Lancet 353:986, March 20, 1999.

W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection). Japanese J. Lepr. 68(1):23-27, March 1999.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. Guerrant, Walker & Weller, editors. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company. 1999. Chapter 41, pp. 474-485.

D. S. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, R. E. Krieg and G. P. Walsh. Transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans to the nine-banded armadillo. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:694-697, 1999.

P. Fields and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterial infections. In, Pathology of the Skin. 2nd edition. E. R. Farmer and A. F. Hood, editors. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2000. Chapter 29, pp. 553-578.

W. M. MEYERS and R. C. Neafie. Tropical phagedenic ulcer, In, Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases , 8th edition. G. Thomas Strickland, editor. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 2000. Chapter 59, pp. 392- 393.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. Ibid. Chapter 78, pp. 513-523.

W. M. MEYERS. Nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections. Ibid. Chapter 79, pp. 524-528.

W. M. MEYERS and J. Hayman. Pathology. In, Buruli Ulcer: Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection. K. Asiedu, R. Scherpbier, M. Raviglione, editors. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000. Chapter 7, pp. 35-36.

K. Asiedu, W. M. MEYERS and P. Agbenorku. Clinical features and treatment. Ibid. Chapter 8, pp. 37-38.

B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin, K. Xu, M. S. Ratterree, L. N. Martin, P. A. Mack, R. P. Bohm, Jr., W. M. MEYERS, and G. P. Walsh. Antileprosy protective vaccination of rhesus monkeys with BCG and BCG plus heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae : Immunological observations. Int. J. Lepr. 68:27-39, 2000.

A. Gomez, A. Mve-Obiang, B. Vray, J. Remacle, K. Chemlal, W. M. MEYERS, F. Portaels and P. A. Fonteyne. Biochemical and genetic evidence for phospholipase C activity in Mycobacterium ulcerans. Infect. Immun. 68: 2995-2997, 2000.

A. Guédénon, F. Portaels, J. Aguiar, L. Cissé, M. Debacker. W. M. MEYERS and C. Zinsou. Ulcère de Buruli (Infection à Mycobacterium ulcerans). Guide diagnostique à l’usage des professionnels de la santé. [Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection). Diagnostic guide for healthcare professionals .] Published by Programme National de Lutte contre l’Ulcère de Buruli, République du Bénin, and Institut de Médecine Tropicale, Antwerpen, Belgique, Antwerp, 2000. (Monograph.)

W. M. MEYERS, C. R. Horsburgh, Jr. and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer: Review of a reemerging mycobacterial disease. In, Tropenchirurgurie III [Tropical Surgery III] , Hefte zur Zeitschrift, Der Unfallchirurg’ 274. W. Strecker/L. Kinzl, editors. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999. pp. 262-271.

W. M. MEYERS, J. Aguiar and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection). In, Report: 3 rd WHO Advisory Group Meeting on Buruli ulcer, 1-3 March 2000, Geneva). Geneva : World Health Organization, 2000. pp. 64-65.

F. M. V. Abalos, J. Aguiar, A. Guédénon, F. Portaels and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer): A case report of the disseminated nonulcerative form. Ann. Diagn. Pathol. 4:386-390, 2000.

V. Lagarrigue, F. Portaels, F. Abalos, W. M. MEYERS and J. Aguiar. L’ulcère de Buruli: Attention aux atteintes osseuses! A propos de 33 observés au Bénin. Méd. Trop. 60:262-266, 2000.

B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin, K. Xu, M. S. Ratterree, L. N. Martin, P. A. Mack, R. P. Bohm, Jr., W. M. MEYERS, and G. P. Walsh. Antileprosy protective vaccination of sooty mangabey monkeys with BCG or BCG plus heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae : Immunologic observations. Int. J. Lepr. 68:434-443, 2000.

F. Portaels, K. Chemlal, P. Elsen, P. D. R. Johnson, J. A. Hayman, J. Hibble, R. Kirkwood and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterium ulcerans in wild animals. Chapter in, Mycobacterial Infections in Domestic and Wild Animals. G. S. Dilmitis, ed. 2001. Scientific and Technical Review, Office International des Epizooties, Paris. Volume 20, pp. 252-264. [Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 20 (1), 252-264, 2001.]

A. Gomez, A. Mve-Obiang. B. Vray, W. Rudnicka, I. C. Shamputa, F. Portaels, W. M. MEYERS, P. A. Fonteyne and L. Realini. Detection of phospholipase C (PLC) in nontuberculous mycobacteria and its possible role in hemolytic activity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:1396-1401, 2001.

K. Chemlal, K. de Ridder, P. A. Fonteyne, W. M. MEYERS, J. Swings and F. Portaels. The use of IS2404 restriction fragment length polymorphisms suggests the diversity of Mycobacterium ulcerans from different geographical areas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:270-273, 2001.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Essentials of Tropical Infectious Diseases: (companion volume for the clinician.). Guerrant, Walker & Weller, editors. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 2001. Chapter 34, pp. 221-227.

K. Chemlal, G. Huys, P. A. Fonteyne, V. Vincent, A. G. Lopez, L. Rigouts, J. Swings, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Evaluation of PCR-restriction profile analysis and IS2404 restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for identification and typing of Mycobacterium ulcerans and M. marinum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:3272-3278, 2001.

Buruli ulcer: Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease. A Manual for Health Care Providers. F. Portaels, P. Johnson, and W. M. MEYERS, eds. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO/CDS/CPE/GBUI/2001,4). 94 pages. 2001. Monograph

D. K. Espey, G. Diomand, I. Diomande, M. Dosso, M. Z. Saki, J. M. Kanga, R. A. Spiegel, B. J. Marston, L. Gorelkin, W. M. MEYERS, F. Portaels, M. S. Deming and C. R. Horsburgh Jr. A pilot study of treatment of Buruli ulcer with rifampin and dapsone. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 6:60-65, 2002.

K. Chemlal, G. Huys, F. Laval, V. Vincent, C. Savage, C. Gutierrez, M. A. Laneelle, J. Swings, W. M. MEYERS, M. Daffe and F. Portaels. Characterization of an unusual mycobacterium: a possible missing link between Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium ulcerans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:2370-2380, 2002.

W. M. MEYERS. Obituary: Gerald P. Walsh, Ph.D., 1935-2001. Int. J. Lepr. 70:47- 48, 2002.

W. M. MEYERS. Presentation of the 2001 Damien-Dutton Award to Prof. Michel F. Lechat of Belgium. Int. J. Lepr. 70:49-51, 2002.

R. C. Johnson, D. Ifebe, A. Hans-Moevi, L. Kestens, R. Houessou, A. Guédénon, W. M. MEYERS, and F. Portaels. Disseminated Mycobacterium ulcerans disease in an HIV-positive patient: A case study. AIDS 16:1704-1705, 2002.

F. Portaels, J. Aguiar, M. Debacker, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, A. Guédénon, and W. M. MEYERS. Prophylactic effect of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against osteomyelitis in children with Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer). Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:1389-1391, 2002.

D. J. Wear, M. K. Klassen-Fischer, P. L. McEvoy, W. M. MEYERS, A. M. Nelson, R. C. Neafie, J. Rodriguez, and C. Wilson. Smallpox. Hot Topics Website, 2002. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology http://www.afip.org/hot-topics.html

W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy. In, Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 21 st edition. C. D. Rudolph, A. M. Rudolph, M. K. Hostetter, G. Lister, and N. J. Siegel, eds. McGraw-Hill, Medical Publishing Division, New York. 2003. (2688 pages.) pp. 963-965.

M. Debacker, C. Zinsou, J. Aguiar, W. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Clinical picture: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) following human bite. The Lancet 360:1830, 2002.

B. J. Gormus, G. B. Baskin, K. Xu, M. S. Ratterree, P. A. Mack, R. P. Bohm, Jr., W. M. MEYERS, and G. P. Walsh. Anti-leprosy protective vaccination of rhesus monkeys with BCG or BCG plus heat-killed Mycobacterium leprae: Lepromin skin test results. Lepr. Rev.73:254-261, 2002.

W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. In, Oxford Textbook ofMedicine, 4 th edition. D. A. Warrell, T. M. Cox, J. D. Firth, E. J. Benz, Jr., eds. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press. 2003. Chapter 7.11.25, pp. 583-584.

M. Debacker, C. Zinsou, J. Aguiar, W. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Brief Report: First case of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) following a human bite. Clin. Infec. Dis. 36:e67-e68, 2003.

F. Portaels, J. Scott, A. Martin, W. MEYERS and P. Elsen. Mise en évidence de Mycobacterium ulcerans chez des insectes aquatiques, des poissons et des mollusques échantillonnés dans l’environnement au Bénin. Bull. de l’Association de la lèpre de langue française 13:30-31, 2003.

N. Pszolla, M. R. Sarkar, W. Strecker, P. Kern, L. Kinzl, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer: a systemic disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37(6):E78-82, Sep 15, 2003. Epub 2003 Aug 26.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy perspectives: Past, present and future. In, Her Name is Grace. Crouch, H. E. Bellmore NY: The Damien-Dutton Society for Leprosy Aid, Inc. 2003. pp. 197-208.

F. Portaels, C. Zinsou, J. Aguiar, M. Debacker, E. de Biurrun, A. Guédénon, R. Josse, V. Lagarrigue, M. Silva, C. Steunou, and W. MEYERS. Les atteintes osseuses dans l’Ulcère de Buruli: à propos de 73 cas. Bull. Séanc. R. Acad. Sci. Outre-Mer 49:161-190, 2003 .

W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer disease (Mycobacterium ulcerans disease). In, Report of the 5 th WHO Advisory Group Meeting on Buruli Ulcer, 11-14 March 2002. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003.

B. J. Gormus and W. M. MEYERS. Under-explored experimental topics related to integral mycobacterial vaccines for leprosy (Review). Expert Rev. Vaccines 2:791-804, 2003. Epub. www.future-drugs.com

F. Portaels, J. Aguiar, M. Debacker, A. Guédénon, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, and W. M. MEYERS. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination as prophylaxis against Mycobacterium ulcerans osteomyelitis in Buruli ulcer disease. Infect. Immun. 72: 62-65, 2004.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy and Buruli ulcer: The major cutaneous mycobac- terioses. In, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 5th edition. (two volumes). Ralph D. Feigin, James D. Cherry, Gail J. Demmler and Sheldon L. Kaplan, editors. Philadelphia: Saunders (Elsevier). 2004. Volume I, pp. 1390-1414.

K. Asiedu, F. Portaels, W. M. MEYERS, and J. Buntine. Buruli ulcer. In, Tropical Surgery. Refsaat Kamel and John Lumley, eds. 2004. London: Springer-Verlag. 173.1-173.3.

M. Debacker, J. Aguiar, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, W. M. MEYERS, A. Guédénon, J. T. Scott, M. Dramaix, and F. Portaels. L’ulcère de Buruli dans un centre de santé rural au Bénin. Bull. de l’association de la lèpre de langue française 14:34-36, 2004.

R. C. Johnson, M. Makoutodé, G. E. Sopoh, P. Elsen, J. Gbovi, L. H. Pouteau, W. M. MEYERS, M. Boko and F. Portaels. L’utilisation de l’eau de la rivière comme source d’eau domestique augmente-t-elle la fréquence de l’ulcère de Buruli dans les villages? Résultats d’une etude dans un arrondissement de la commune de Lalo au Bénin. Bull. de l’association de la lèpre de langue française 14:39-42, 2004. (In English: Is use of river water for domestic purposes related to frequency of Buruli ulcer in the villages? Results of a study in Lalo District in Benin.)

W. M. MEYERS, M. Maleombho-Usher, and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer. Hot Topics Website, 2004. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology http://www.afip.org/hot-topics.html

M. Debacker, J. Aguiar, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, W. M. MEYERS, A. Guédénon, J. T. Scott, M. Dramaix, and F. Portaels . Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) in rural hospital, southern Benin, 1997-2001. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1391-1398, 2004.

W. M. MEYERS, F. M. Abalos, J. Aguiar, M. Maleombho-Usher and F. Portaels. Clinicopathologic classification of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer). Pathol. Intl 54 (Suppl 1):S278-S281, 2004. (Proceedings of Symposium on Infectious Diseases, XXV Congress of the International Academy of Pathology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. October 2004.)

K. Kibadi, T. Muyembe, D. Phanzu, L. Mbala, W. M. MEYERS, F. Portaels. Association large ulcère de Buruli thoraco-abdominal et pleurésie massive homolatérale: Aspects diagnostics et difficultés de prise en charge. A propos d’un cas. (A case of pleurisy associated with a homolateral large thorax Buruli ulcer.) Médecine d’Afrique Noire 51:643-648, 2004.

M. Debacker, J. Aguiar, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, W. M. MEYERS, J. T. Scott, M. Dramaix, and F. Portaels . Mycobacterium ulcerans disease: Role of age and gender in incidence and morbidity. Trop. Med. Intl. Health 9:1297-1304, 2004.

W. M. MEYERS, M. Maleombho-Usher, F. Abalos, J. Aguiar, R. C. Johnson, A. Guédénon, M. Debacker and F. Portaels. Osteomyelitis in Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. In, Report of the 7 th WHO Advisory Group Meeting on Buruli Ulcer, 8-11 March 2004. pp. 100-101. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004.

M. Eddyani, D. Ofori-Adjei, G. Teugels, D. De Weirdt, D. Boakye, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Potential role for fish in transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer): An environmental study. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:5679-5681, 2004.

P. Stragier, A. Ablordey, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Genotyping Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum by using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. J. Bacteriol. 187:1639-1647, 2005.

R. C. Johnson, M. Makoutodé, G. E. Sopoh, P. Elsen, J. Gbovi, L. H. Pouteau, W. M. MEYERS, M. Boko and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer distribution in Benin. (Letter to the Editor). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:500-501, 2005.

M. Debacker, J. Aguiar, C. Steunou, C. Zinsou, W. M. MEYERS, and F. Portaels . Buruli ulcer recurrence, Benin. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:584-589, 2005.

D. S. Walsh, W. M. MEYERS, F. Portaels, J. E. Lane, D. Mongkolsirichaikul, K. Hussem, P. Gosi and K. S. A. Myint. High rates of apoptosis in human Mycobacterium ulcerans culture-positive Buruli ulcer skin lesions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:410-415, 2005.

S. Adusumilli, A. Mve-Obiang, T. Sparer, W. MEYERS, J. Hayman and P. L. Small. Mycobacterium ulcerans toxic macrolide, mycolactone, modulates the host immune response and cellular location of M. ulcerans in vitro and in vivo. Cell Microbiol. 7:1295-1304, 2005.

M. S. Oliveira, A. G. Fraga, E. Torrado, A. G. Castro, J. P. Pereira, A. Longatto Filho, F. Milanezi, F. C. Schmitt, W. M. MEYERS, F. Portaels, M. T. Silva and J. Pedrosa. Infection by Mycobacterium ulcerans induces persistent inflammatory responses in mice. Infect. Immun. 73:6299-6310, 2005.

P. G. Janssens, S. R. Pattyn, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Buruli ulcer: An historical overview, with updating to 2005. Bull. Séanc. Acad. R. Sci. Outre-Mer 51:265-299, 2005.

W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer). In, Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. 2 nd edition (two volumes). Guerrant, Walker & Weller, editors. New York: Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier). 2006. Vol. 1, Chapter 37, pp. 428-435.

W. M. MEYERS. Leprosy. In, Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and Practice. 2 nd edition (two volumes). Guerrant, Walker & Weller, editors. New York: Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier). 2006. Vol. 1, Chapter 38, pp. 436- 447.

A. E. Kiszewski, E. Becerril, L. D. Aguilar, I. T. A. Kader, W. MEYERS, F. Portaels and R. Hernàndez Pando. The local immune response in ulcerative lesions of Buruli disease. Clin. Expl. Immunol. 143:445-451, 2006.

P. Stragier, A. Ablordey, L. M. Bayonne, Y. L. Lugor, I. S. Sindani, P. Suykerbuyk, H. Wabinga, W. M. MEYERS and F. Portaels. Heterogeneity among Mycobacterium ulcerans isolates from Africa. (Dispatches .) Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:844- 847, 2006.

D. M. Phanzu, E. A. Bafende, B. K. Dunda, D. B. Imposo, A. K. Kibadi, S. Z. Nsiangana, J. N. Singa, W. M. MEYERS, P. Suykerbuyk and F. Portaels. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) in a rural hospital in Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2002-2004. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:311-314, 2006.

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