International Leprosy Association -
History of Leprosy

  • International Leprosy Association -
    History of Leprosy


    Dr Colin McDougall

    Status Physician
    Country United Kingdom


    Colin McDougall (13 November 1924-16 February 2006) was a Scottish physician who made several important contributions to leprosy, notably the confirmation of the role of nasal secretions in the transmission of leprosy.

    McDougall qualified in medicine in Edinburgh in 1946 and was awarded the Burn-Murdoch Medal in Clinical Medicine. He worked in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, and in general practice before taking up a post as chest physician in the Royal Singapore Anti-Tuberculosis Association (SATA) in Singapore from 1953-56. On returning to the UK, he pursued post-graduate training in clinical (internal) medicine in the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Norwich and St Bartholomews Hospital, London. Opting out of a career in the National Health Service, he then worked as a medical specialist in Sumatra and Aden, and with refugees in Algeria, before being appointed as Leprosy Specialist to the Ministry of Health in Zambia in 1967.

    The situation at that time, as with many other African countries, was still based to a large extent on leprosaria or institutions, mostly run by missions, with one government referral hospital in the centre of the country at Liteta. Trained staff for leprosy control programme work were virtually non-existent and plans were therefore made, as a matter of urgency, to obtain WHO fellowships for the training of a small group of Zambian medical assistants at the newly established All Africa Leprosy and Rehabilitation Training Centre (ALERT) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopa, following a fact-finding visit to Zambia by the Training Director, Dr Felton Ross. It was also possible to visit the ‘mobile’ leprosy control programme set up by Dr David Molesworth and colleagues in neighbouring Malawi, where the benefits of repetitive circuits and visits, using Landrovers and (later) motorbikes and bicycles, for both detection of leprosy and treatment, were extremely clear. An application was formally presented to the then Director of the British Leprosy Relief Association (then BELRA, now LEPRA), Mr Francis Harris, for the import or local purchase of Landrovers for control programme work in Zambia, without which any meaningful change from an institution-based approach to out-patient diagnosis and treatment could not be achieved. This was accepted and during the next three years a series of vehicles were delivered for the control programme, mainly in the Eastern Province. A further group of medical assistants were sent to Addis Ababa and a WHO consultant, Dr Giovanni Papinutto reassessed the national strategy to bring it up to date and make best use of available funds, transport and personnel.

    Dr McDougall returned to the UK in 1970, having previously contacted Dr RJW Rees at the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Mill Hill, London, about the possibility of working in clinical or experimental research on leprosy in the UK. He was referred to Dr AGM Weddell (then Reader, later Professor) in the Department of Human Anatomy in the Science Area of the University of Oxford. Graham Weddell already had an international reputation for his light and electron microscope studies of mammalian peripheral nerves and had established a link with Dick Rees in the NIMR in order to further investigate the mechanism of nerve damage so characteristic of leprosy. The area of histopathology in general, including the localisation and numbers of bacilli in various body tissues and the cellular immune response, was identified as being in need of additional input. Colin McDougall was taken on, somewhat tentatively (in view of his lack of previous experience in this subject), with a small salary from LEPRA, to see if anything could be achieved in a reasonable period of time. The workload involved the examination of tissues from experimental animals from the NIMR and biopsies from patients in various trials, notably those established by the Medical Research Council (MRC) unit in Sungei Buloh under the direction of two UK leprologists, Dr MFR Waters and Dr JMH Pearson. For Dr McDougall an intensive period of learning and the acquisition of new knowledge and skills followed, under the able guidance of Graham Weddell and Dr Douglas Harman in the Leprosy Study Centre, Wimpole Street, London.

    The ensuing ten years are essentially the story of the continuing development and activity of a unit, mainly supported by LEPRA and the MRC, created by Graham Weddell within a university department of Human Anatomy – unusual, to say the least; probably unique. It attracted research workers from many parts of the world to participate in studies, at light and electron microscope levels, in a wide range of tissues of animal and human origin. Medical students were involved and were amongst the first in the UK to go abroad during their elective period to work in leprosy centres. A prize essay competition for medical students was established and supported by LEPRA, on a subject of current importance in leprosy. This was soon offered to all medical schools in the UK and continues today.

    Coincidentally, a facility at the Department of Dermatology, the Slade Hospital, Oxford, was opened by Dr RG Cochrane in the early 1970s, for the admission of leprosy patients in the UK. Responsibility for activating the referral and admission of patients was given to Dr McDougall, in association with Dr (later Professor) TJ Ryan, Consultant Dermatologist. This resulted in the investigation of a small but highly significant group of patients, some of them untreated and of lepromatous classification. Their admission, close to a university research unit and in close collaboration with the NIMR, afforded an opportunity to investigate various aspects of transmission, the fate of leprosy bacilli excreted into the environment, the nasal excretion of bacilli and the viability of bacilli after varying periods of treatment with anti-leprosy drugs, notably rifampicin. An electron microscope was later installed, contributing to the studies of Dr Janny Boddingius (Netherlands) of the ultra-structural damage in human peripheral nerves affected by leprosy.

    With the retirement of Graham Weddell, the unit moved into accommodation in the Department of Dermatology, since by that time the beds were no longer being used for the admission of patients. The task of examining literally thousands of sections for bacillary and cellular changes due to one disease, on a day to day basis, and with a considerable element of negative or normal findings, despite long searches, in much of the material submitted, was inevitably tedious and repetitive. From the outset, however, it was mitigated by numerous visits to leprosy-endemic countries abroad, including Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East and also by the proximity, in the Science Area of the University, to Departments of basic, applied and postgraduate scientific activity. These included chemistry, pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, crystallography and molecular biophysics. Through the years, publications involved co-authors and collaborators from all these disciplines. Not long after the move to the Slade Hospital, WHO published their recommendations for the treatment of all leprosy patients with multidrug regimens of fixed duration. Following preliminary discussions many years previously with Dr Tim Lusty of the OXFAM Health Unit in north Oxford, on a suitable box or container for tablets of dapsone, it seemed reasonable to propose that the multiple drugs now needed for leprosy treatment (either dapsone and rifampicin, or dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine), both daily and monthly, should be dispensed in appropriate blister calendar packs. In association with colleagues in the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, the first designs and proposals for such packs were published from the Slade Hospital, in the International Journal of Leprosy in 1983.

    Colin McDougall retired in 1998 and has continued to support Leprosy Review, having been Editor for ten years from 1978, in revising and sub-editing manuscripts for possible publication and has continued to visit leprosy-endemic countries abroad, mainly for WHO, to assess progress and advise on measures to increase case detection, wider implementation of multidrug therapy and better disability management.

    Information supplied by Dr Colin McDougall, 6 January, 2003.

    Treatment Used/Researched:
    Laboratory Work
    Leprosy Control


    McDougall AC, Hastings RC. Streptomycin combined with sulfones in the treatment of relapsed lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr 1968 Oct-Dec; 36 (4) : 456-7.

    McDougall AC, Rees RJ. Ulcerating lepromatous leprosy in a patient with dapsone-resistant Mycobacterium leprae. Lepr Rev 1973 Jun; 44 (2) : 59-64.

    McDougall AC. Electron microscope studies of the antileprosy drug B663 (clofazimine; Lamprenel). Int J Lepr 1974 Jan-Mar; 42 (1) : 1-12.

    Rees RJ, McDougall AC, Weddell AG. The nose in mice with experimental human leprosy. Lepr Rev 1974 Jun; 45 (2) : 112-20.

    Waters MF, Rees RJ, McDougall AC, Weddell AG. Ten years of dapsone in lepromatous leprosy: clinical, bacteriological and histological assessment and the finding of viable leprosy bacilli. Lepr Rev 1974 Dec; 45 (4) : 288-98.

    Rees RJ, McDougall AC, Weddell AG. The testis in mice infected with Mycobacterium leprae. J Pathol 1975 Feb; 115 (2) : 73-9.

    McDougall AC, Rees RJ, Weddell AG, Kanan MW. The histopathology of lepromatous leprosy in the nose. J Pathol 1975 Apr; 115 (4) : 215-26.

    Aplin RT, McDougall AC. Identification of crystals of the rimino-phenazine compound B663 (Lamprene: clofazimine) in mouse spleen macrophages by thin layer chromatography and mass spectrum analysis. Experientia 1975 Apr 15; 31 (4) : 468-9.

    McDougall AC. Leprosy in the Sudan. Lepr Rev 1975 Sep; 46 (3) : 222-30

    Allen BW, Ellard GA, Gammon PT, King RC, McDougall AC, Rees RJ, Weddell AG. The penetration of dapsone, rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide into peripheral nerves. Br J Pharmacol 1975 Sep; 55 (1) : 151-5.

    Iveson JM, McDougall AC, Leathem AJ, Harris HJ. Lepromatous leprosy presenting with polyarthritis, myositis, and immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Br Med J 1975 Sep 13; 3 (5984) : 619-21.

    McDougall AC, Rose JA, Grahame-Smith DG. Penetration of C14-labelled rifampicin into primate peripheral nerve. Experientia 1975 Sep 15; 31 (9) : 1068-9.

    McDougall AC, Weddell AG, Rees RJ. Lepromatous leprosy in the nose after one year of dapsone treatment: histopathological findings. Lepr Rev 1975 Dec; 46 (4) : 267-77.

    Rendall JR, McDougall AC. Reddening of the upper central incisors associated with periapical granuloma in lepromatous leprosy. Br J Oral Surg 1976 Mar; 13 (3) : 271-7.

    Rendall JR, McDougall AC, Willis LA. Intra-oral temperatures in man with special reference to involvement of the central incisors and premaxillary alveolar process in lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr 1976 Oct-Dec; 44 (4) : 462-8.

    McDougall AC. Onchocerciasis and streptocerciasis in patients with leprosy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1977; 71 (4) : 360-1.

    McDougall AC, Salter DC. Thermography of the nose and ear in relation to the skin lesions of lepromatous leprosy, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lupus pernio. J Invest Dermatol 1977 Jan; 68 (1) : 16-22.

    McDougall AC, Archibald GC. Lepromatous leprosy presenting with swelling of the legs. Br Med J. 1977 Jan 1; 1 (6052) : 23-4.

    Rees RJ, McDougall AC. Airborne infection with Mycobacterium leprae in mice. J Med Microbiol 1977 Feb; 10 (1) : 63-8.

    Stanford JL, Bird RG, Carswell JW, Draper P, Lowe C, McDougall AC, McIntyre G, Pattyn SR, Rees RJ. A study of alleged leprosy bacillus strain HI-75. Int J Lepr 1977 Apr-Jun; 45 (2) : 101-6.

    McDougall AC, Waudby H. Dermal microfilariasis and leprosy. Lepr Rev 1977 Sep; 48 (3) : 161-8.

    McDougall AC. The work of the Leprosy Study Centre in London: a review of over 13 000 biopsies. Proc R Soc Med 1977 Oct; 70 (10) : 731-2.

    Gelber RH, Waters MF, Pearson JM, Rees RJ, McDougall AC. Dapsone alone compared with dapsone plus rifampicin in short-term therapy of lepromatous leprosy. Lepr Rev 1977 Dec; 48 (4) : 223-9.

    McDougall AC, Rose P. Integrated leprosy control in Guyana. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1978; 12 (1) : 11-6.

    Hobbs HE, Harman DJ, Rees JW, McDougall AC. Ocular histopathology in animals experimentally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium. 1. Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium infections in the mouse. 2. Mycobacterium leprae infections in the 9-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus L.). Br J Ophthalmol 1978 Aug; 62 (8) : 516-24.

    McDougall AC, Harman DJ, Waudby H, Hargrave JC. Peripheral nerve biopsies in the diagnosis of leprosy in Aboriginal patients from the Northern Territory of Australia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1978 Oct; 41 (10) : 874-81.

    McDougall AC. The nasal excretion of leprosy bacilli. Lepr Rev 1978 Dec; 49 (4) : 265-7.

    McDougall AC. Emmaus-Swiss Palamaner leprosy project, Chitoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India, first annual report, February 1978. Lepr Rev 1978 Dec; 49 (4) : 321-2.

    Waters MF, Bakri IB, Isa HJ, Rees RJ, McDougall AC. Experimental lepromatous leprosy in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobatus lar): successful inoculation with leprosy bacilli of human origin. Br J Exp Pathol 1978 Dec; 59 (6) : 551-7.

    McDougall AC. Dermal neuroma simulating leprosy. Int J Dermatol 1979 Jan-Feb; 18 (1) : 46-9.

    McDougall AC, Rose P. [Integrated control of leprosy in Guyana] Bol Oficina Sanit Panam 1979 Feb; 86 (2) : 105-12. Spanish.

    Languillon J, Yawalkar SJ, McDougall AC. Therapeutic effects of adding rimactane (rifampicin) 450 milligrams daily or 1200 milligrams once monthly in a single dose to dapsone 50 milligrams daily in patients with lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr 1979 Mar; 47 (1) : 37-43.

    McDougall AC. Teaching and training in leprosy. Int J Lepr 1979 Jun; 47 (2) : 176-96.

    McDougall AC. Dapsone. Clin Exp Dermatol 1979 Jun; 4 (2) : 139-42.

    McDougall AC. Leprosy control in Ethiopia. Lepr Rev 1979 Sep; 50 (3) : 181-2.

    Coruh G, McDougall AC. Untreated lepromatous leprosy: histopathological findings in cutaneous blood vessels. Int J Lepr 1979 Sep; 47 (3) : 500-11.

    Barton RP, McDougall AC. The paranasal sinuses in lepromatous leprosy. Lepr India 1979 Oct; 51 (4) : 481-5.

    Barton RP, Hogerzeil LM, McDougall AC. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy with a 'lepromatous' nodule of the nasal mucosa: a case report. Lepr India 1980 Jan; 52 (1) : 114-8.

    McDougall AC, Horsfall WR, Hede JE, Chaplin AJ. Splenic infarction and tissue accumulation of crystals associated with the use of clofazimine (Lamprene; B663) in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. Br J Dermatol 1980 Feb; 102 (2) : 227-30.

    Pedley JC, Harman DJ, Waudby H, McDougall AC. Leprosy in peripheral nerves: histopathological findings in 119 untreated patients in Nepal. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980 Mar; 43 (3) : 198-204.

    McDougall AC, Weddell AG. The teaching of leprosy in medical schools: four and one-half hours in three years. Int J Lepr 1980 Sep; 48 (3) : 329.

    McDougall AC, Jones RL. Intra-neural ceroid-like pigment following the treatment of lepromatous leprosy with clofazimine (B663; Lamprene). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981 Feb; 44 (2) : 116-20.

    Browne SG, Harman DJ, Waudby H, McDougall AC. Clofazimine (Lamprene, B663) in the treatment of lepromatous leprosy in the United Kingdom. A 12 year review of 31 cases, 1966-1978. Int J Lepr 1981 Jun; 49 (2) : 167-76.

    Cologlu AS, McDougall AC, Parker MJ. Skin temperatures of the normal arm, hand and fingers in relation to the distribution of bacilli in lepromatous leprosy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1981 Jul; 6 (4) : 379-84.

    Ghosh S, McDougall AC, Hazra SK, Yawalkar SJ. Controlled comparison of therapeutic effects of DDS in combination with daily or once-monthly rifampicin in patients with lepromatous leprosy. Indian J Dermatol 1981 Oct; 26 (4) : 1-6.

    Opromolla DV, Tonello CJ, McDougall AC, Yawalkar SJ. A controlled trial to compare the therapeutic effects of dapsone in combination with daily or once-monthly rifampin in patients with lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr 1981 Dec; 49 (4) : 393-7.

    Barton RP, Rees RJ, McDougall AC, Ellard GA. The nose in lepromatous leprosy; bacteriological and histopathological studies of patients treated with dapsone monotherapy for varying periods of time. Int J Lepr 1982 Mar; 50 (1) : 58-67.

    Yawalkar SJ, McDougall AC, Languillon J, Ghosh S, Hajra SK, Opromolla DV, Tonello CJ. Once-monthly rifampicin plus daily dapsone in initial treatment of lepromatous leprosy. Lancet 1982 May 29; 1 (8283) : 1199-202.

    McDougall AC, Ross WF. Co-incident (simultaneous) dapsone sensitive and dapsone resistant leprosy. Int J Lepr 1982 Jun; 50 (2) : 214-5.

    Barnhill RL, McDougall AC. Thalidomide: use and possible mode of action in reactional lepromatous leprosy and in various other conditions. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982 Sep; 7 (3) : 317-23.

    McDougall AC. Factors influencing the quality of service to leprosy patients. Int J Lepr 1982 Sep; 50 (3) : 355-8.

    Girdhar BK, McDougall AC. The morphology of bacilli at different levels of the dermal infiltrate in lepromatous leprosy. Int J Lepr 1982 Dec; 50 (4) : 477-9.

    Lancaster RD, Hilson GR, McDougall AC, Colston MJ. Mycobacterium leprae infection in nude mice: bacteriological and histological responses to primary infection and large inocula. Infect Immun 1983 Feb; 39 (2) : 865-72.

    McDougall AC, Cologlu AS. Lepromatous leprosy in man; depth of the cellular infiltrate and bacillary mass in relation to the possibility of transmission of leprosy by biting arthropods. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1983 Apr; 77 (2) : 187-93.

    McDougall AC, Chaplin AJ, Jones RL. Infiltration of the supraorbital nerve by basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol 1983 Aug; 5 (4) : 381-4.

    McDougall AC, Pasvol G. Subacute peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause complicating active borderline (dimorphous) leprosy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983 Nov; 46 (11) : 1058-9.

    Winsley BE, McDougall AC, Brown KE. Chemotherapy of leprosy; "bubble" or "calendar" packs for the administration of rifampin, dapsone, clofazimine, or prothionamide/ethionamide. Int J Lepr 1983 Dec; 51 (4) : 592-4.

    McDougall AC and Leiker DL. Technical Guide for Smear Examination for Leprosy by Direct Microscopy. Published by Leprosy Documentation Service, Amsterdam, 1983.

    Lancaster RD, McDougall AC, Hilson GR, Colston MJ. Leprosy in the nude mouse. Exp Cell Biol 1984; 52 (1-2) : 154-7.

    Haimanot RT, Mshana RN, McDougall AC, Andersen JG. Sural nerve biopsy in leprosy patients after varying periods of treatment: histopathological and bacteriological findings on light microscopy. Int J Lepr 1984 Jun; 52 (2) : 163-70.

    McDougall AC. Questions and Answers on the Implementation of Multiple Drug Therapy (MDT) for Leprosy. First published for OXFAM, Oxford, UK, 1984. Revised and reprinted October 1985 and March 1988.

    Laing AB, Millard PR, McDougall AC. Mycobacterium leprae within a squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol 1984 Aug; 6 (4) : 413-4.

    Jones RL, McDougall AC. Three histologic fixatives for the demonstration of Mycobacterium leprae. Am J Dermatopathol 1984 Aug; 6 (4) : 379-80.

    Ffytche TJ, McDougall AC. Leprosy and the eye: a review. J R Soc Med 1985 May; 78 (5) : 397-400.

    Haimanot RT, McDougall AC, Mshana RN, Andersen JG, Belehu A. Muramidase (lysozyme) findings in sural and radial nerve biopsies in leprosy patients after varying periods of treatment. Int J Lepr 1985 Jun; 53 (2) : 238-46.

    McDougall AC. Leprosy. Packs of teaching-learning materials produced in Oxford (UK). Int J Dermatol 1985 Oct; 24 (8) : 526-7.

    Cree IA, McDougall AC, Coghill G, Beck JS. Quantitation of the granuloma fraction in leprosy skin biopsies by planimetry. Int J Lepr1985 Dec; 53 (4) : 582-6.

    Cree IA, Guthrie W, McDougall AC, Rees RJ. Sudden respiratory collapse in an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linn.). Int J Lepr 1986 Mar; 54 (1) : 131-2.

    McDougall AC. The medical student and leprosy. Lepr Rev 1986 Jun; 57 (2) : 97-100.

    Fine PE, Job CK, McDougall AC, Meyers WM, Ponnighaus JM. Comparability among histopathologists in the diagnosis and classification of lesions suspected of leprosy in Malawi. Int J Lepr 1986 Dec; 54 (4) : 614-25.

    Millard PR, Chaplin AJ, Heryet AR, McDougall AC. Factor VIII related antigen positive macrophages and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): a problem of antibody specificity. J Clin Pathol 1987 Mar; 40 (3) : 262-6.

    McDougall AC, Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies from an epidemiological study of leprosy in northern Malawi. Int J Lepr 1987 Mar; 55 (1) : 88-98.

    Georgiev GD, McDougall AC. The bacteriological examination of slit-skin smears in leprosy control programmes using multiple drug therapy: a plea for radical changes in current operational methodology. Indian J Lepr 1987 Oct-Dec; 59 (4) : 373-85.

    Georgiev GD, McDougall AC. Skin smears and the bacterial index (B) in multiple drug therapy leprosy control programs: an unsatisfactory and potentially hazardous state of affairs. Int J Lepr 1988 Mar; 56 (1) : 101-4.

    Meyers WM, McDougall AC, Fleury RN, Neves R, Reyes O, Binford CH. Histologic responses in sixty multibacillary leprosy patients inoculated with autoclaved Mycobacterium leprae and live BCG. Int J Lepr 1988 Jun; 56 (2) : 302-9.

    Georgiev GD, McDougall AC. Blister calendar packs--potential for improvement in the supply and utilization of multiple drug therapy in leprosy control programs. Int J Lepr 1988 Dec; 56 (4) : 603-10.

    McDougall AC. The use of xylene (xylol) in medical laboratories. Lepr Rev 1989 Mar; 60 (1) : 67.

    McDougall AC, Georgiev GD. Priorities in leprosy control. Lepr Rev 1989 Mar; 60 (1) : 1-7. Review.

    McDougall AC. Diagnostic efficacy of cutaneous nerve biopsy in primary neuritic leprosy. Int J Lepr 1989 Mar; 57 (1) : 114-5.

    McDougall AC, Georgeiv GD. Educational material for the patient with leprosy. Lepr Rev 1989 Sep; 60 (3) : 221-8.

    McDougall AC and Yawalkar SJ. Leprosy. Basic information and treatment. Second edition 1989. Published by Ciba-Geigy SA, Basle, Switzerland.

    Valeza FS, McDougall AC. Blister calendar packs for treatment of tuberculosis. Lancet 1990 Feb 24; 335 (8687) : 473.

    Georgiev GD, McDougall AC. A re-appraisal of clinical and bacteriological criteria in the implementation of multiple drug therapy for leprosy control programmes and proposals for their better use. Lepr Rev 1990 Mar; 61 (1) : 64-72.

    McDougall AC. Blister calendar packs for dapsone monotherapy. Int J Lepr 1990 Mar; 58 (1) : 121-3.

    McDermott-Lancaster RD, McDougall AC. Mode of transmission and histology of M. leprae infection in nude mice. Int J Exp Pathol 1990 Oct; 71 (5) : 689-700.

    Samy AA, Mancheril J, Manek KP, McDougall AC. ALERT-India 1981-89: nine years' experience of leprosy control in the slums of Bombay. Lepr Rev 1991 Sep; 62 (3) : 315-28.

    Mcdougall AC. Leprosy: an urgent need to step up use of MDT in Africa. Afr Health 1992 Jan; 14 (2) : 31, 34-5.

    McDougall AC. An inexpensive slide marker made from a dental bur and a plastic pen. Lepr Rev 1992 Mar; 63 (1) : 79-80.

    Van Brakel WH, de Soldenhoff R, McDougall AC. The allocation of leprosy patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary groups for multidrug therapy, taking into account the number of body areas affected by skin, or skin and nerve lesions. Lepr Rev 1992 Sep; 63 (3) : 231-46.

    McDougall AC. Modified multiple drug therapy in the National Leprosy Eradication Programme, India. Lepr Rev 1992 Sep; 63 (3) : 288-90.

    McDougall AC. Leprosy control and the implementation of multiple drug therapy: to what extent can the operational strategy be simplified for primary health care? Lepr Rev 1992 Sep; 63 (3) : 193-8.

    McDougall AC and Ulrich MI. Mycobacterial Disease: Leprosy. Dermatology in General Medicine (2 vols), Fourth Edition, 1993. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York. Section 31, 192.

    Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Lucas SB, McDougall AC. Long-term active surveillance of leprosy suspects--what are the likely returns? Lepr Rev 1993 Mar; 64 (1) : 25-36.

    McDougall AC. Comment: Blister-calendar packs for multiple drug therapy in leprosy. Lepr Rev 1995 Mar; 66 (1) : 76-8.

    McDougall AC. Training in leprosy: does the current strategy need revision? Lepr Rev 1995 Jun; 66 (2) : 89-95.

    Peat M, Brolin L, Ganapati R, McDougall AC, Revankar CR, Watson JW. An evaluation of the contribution of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) to leprosy control in India based on the implementation of multiple drug therapy (MDT) 1981-1993. Indian J Lepr 1995 Oct-Dec; 67 (4) : 447-65.

    Patnaik PK, McDougall AC. The contribution of "cure by dapsone monotherapy' to the reduction of prevalence of leprosy in the State of Orissa, India, 1983-1993. Indian J Lepr 1996 Jul-Sep; 68 (3) : 223-6.

    McDougall AC. The clinical examination of peripheral nerves in leprosy. Indian J Lepr 1996 Oct-Dec; 68 (4) : 378-80.

    Jopling WH and McDougall AC. Handbook of Leprosy. Fifth Edition. 1996. CBS Publishers and Distributors, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110002, India.

    The Wellcome Trust. Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases. Edited by Professor FEG Fox. The Wellcome Trust, London, 1996. Chapter 5. Leprosy. AC McDougall.

    McDougall AC. Bacillary and histopathological findings in the peripheral nerves of armadillos experimentally infected with M. leprae. Int J Lepr 1997 Jun; 65 (2) : 260-2.

    McDougall AC. Recent developments in the chemotherapy of leprosy. Lepr Rev 1997 Dec; 68 (4) : 294-8.

    McDougall AC. Independent evaluation of leprosy elimination activities in Bangladesh, 11-23 September 1997. Int J Lepr 1998 Mar; 66 (1) : 66-7.

    McDougall AC. Primary amyloidosis: not a cause of peripheral nerve enlargement. Indian J Lepr 1998 Apr-Jun; 70 (2) : 229.

    McDougall AC. International Leprosy Congress, Beijing, China, 7-12 September 1998: working toward a world without leprosy. Lepr Rev 1998 Dec; 69 (4) : 338-40.

    McDougall AC. Prevalence rate of leprosy in Brazil. Int J Lepr 1999 Dec; 67 (4) : 479.

    Bowen JR, McDougall AC, Morris JH, Lucas SB, Donaghy M. Vasculitic neuropathy in a patient with inactive treated lepromatous leprosy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000 Apr; 68 (4) : 496-500.

    McDougall AC and Yo Yuasa. A New Atlas of Leprosy. Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, 2000.


    McDougall, Dr Colin - Personal Collection   Wellcome Library, London, holds tour reports, including that of Dr McDougall's time in Guyana, 1975. There are also documents relating to his research.
    Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine  
    LEPRA (Leprosy Relief Association)  
    Ryan, Prof Terence - Personal Collection  

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